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Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Köln, Germany

Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research

We wish to determine whether and how a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms defined in model plant species can be used to rationally manipulate selected traits in crop plants.

The primary scientific goal of the Department of Plant Developmental Biology (George Coupland) is to study molecular mechanisms that regulate the responsiveness of plant development to environmental cues. In particular, a strong emphasis is placed on understanding the mechanisms controlling the transition to flowering in response to environmental signals and in explaining the diversity in flowering responses observed between species. These studies employ molecular-genetic, biochemical and cell biology-based approaches in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the roles of key regulatory proteins in flowering. Of particular interest are the mechanisms by which seasonal changes in day length control flowering, the role of the endogenous circadian clock in measuring day length, the importance of chromatin structure in controlling the transcription of flowering-time genes and how the functions of regulatory proteins are modulated by phosphorylation or the attachment of the small protein ubiquitin. Researchers in this department also study how these processes have evolved in other plant species Here, the department focuses particularly 1) on the modifications of flowering pathways that took place during domestication of barley, 2) on how these pathways respond to abiotic stresses such as drought, and 3) the mechanisms by which distinct life histories, such as perennialism, have emerged during evolution as a consequence of alterations in the regulation of flowering.

Research in the Department of Plant Microbe Interactions (Paul Schulze-Lefert) concentrates on fundamental molecular processes underlying interactions between plants and pathogens. The innate immune system of plants and mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis have a central role in the discovery programme. Researchers are pursuing an integrated approach that connects traditionally separate research territories like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology. Much of this work is focused on interactions between plants and filamentous pathogens such as fungi and oomycetes, two widespread classes of pathogenic microbes. Although the plant immune system ensures effective protection against most microbial pathogens, some intruders do succeed in colonising host plants. In such cases, plant immune receptors fail to recognise the pathogen, or the invader has evolved ways of suppressing immune responses. The goal is to define the regulatory network of the plant immune system in such detail that a prediction on how it will respond to specific changes in defined components is possible. This should provide insights into how the plant immune system can be modified, using molecular breeding techniques, so as to improve plant protection.

Research in the Department of Comparative Development and Genetics (Miltos Tsiantis) aims to attain a predictive understanding of how biological forms develop and diversify, by using a combination of genetics, biological imaging, genomics and computational modelling. To empower their work scientists in the Department developed Cardamine hirsuta - a small crucifer related to the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana - into a powerful genetic system. Comparative studies between these two species and other seed plants aids them in uncovering the mechanistic basis for plant diversity and helps them formulate general hypotheses about how morphology evolves.

The Department of Chromosome Biology (Raphael Mercier) studies the engine of heredity, meiosis. Meiosis is a specialized cell division and an essential stage in the life cycle of sexually-reproducing organisms, during which genetic information is shuffled. Meiosis is thus at the heart of heredity, and is the engine of evolution of eukaryotes, from animals to plants. The department of Chromosome Biology at MPIPZ uses cutting-edge technologies in microscopy, genetics and genomics to explore the mechanisms and consequences of meiosis from multiple perspectives.

Giving talented young scientists from diverse backgrounds the opportunity to prove themselves as leaders of independent research groups complements and expands the focus of the departments. The groups directed by these younger scientists operate outside the departmental structure and can pursue their own research topics for a period of up to five years. Service groups are also independent of the departments and are headed by tenured scientists who perform research tasks, in addition to service duties which they carry out in collaboration with groups inside and outside the Institute.

Future orientation The development of "next-generation" sequencing technology provides novel opportunities for genome-based research that also deals with the issues of natural variation and biodiversity. Currently these technologies are being used for genome sequencing of several fungal species, and of Arabis alpine. They also find application in the area of gene expression. The establishment of a Genome Centre where next-generation sequencing will be used has been started in 2010. The existing departments will benefit from these facilities, as well as the new department that will be led by a new Director, whose appointment is underway.